Let be independent zero-mean real valued variables and let Then

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# Author: econostatistician

# Hoeffding’s Inequality

# Almost sure convergence via pairwise independence

# An inequality of the mean involving truncation

# Karl Popper: Conjectures and Refutations

# Some notes on Kalman Filtering

# Expectation: Useful properties and inequalities

Let be independent zero-mean real valued variables and let Then

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If are pairwise independent and then as

Proof:

Let and . Since are pairwise independent, the are uncorrelated and thus

Since

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Let be i.i.d. r.vs with and . Then

Proof:

First we proove the following useful result

If and then

Note you can find the same lemma on Feller Vol.2 (p. 150) as

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(1) It is

easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory-if we look for confirmations.(2) Confirmations

should count only if they are the result of risky predictions; that is to say, if, unenlightened by the theory in question, we should have expected an event which was incompatible with the theory–an event which would have refuted the theory.(3)

Every ‘good’ scientific theory is a prohibition: it forbids certain things to happen. The more a theory forbids, the better it is.(4)

A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is nonscientific. Irrefutability is not a virtue of a theory (as people often think) but a vice.(5)

Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it, or to refute it. Testability is falsifiability; but there are degrees of testability: some theories are more testable, more exposed to refutation, than others; they take, as it were, greater risks.(6) Confirming evidence should not count except when it is the result of a

genuine testof the theory; and this means that it can be presented as a serious but unsuccessful attempt to falsify the theory. (I now speak in such cases of ‘corroborating evidence’.)(7) Some genuinely testable theories, when found to be false, are still upheld by their admirers–for example by introducing ad hoc some auxiliary assumption, or by re-interpreting theory ad hoc in such a way that it escapes refutation. Such a procedure is always possible, it rescues the theory from refutation only

at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, scientific status.

—————————-

Excerpt from a lecture given by Karl Popper at Peterhouse, Cambridge, in Summer 1953, as part of a course on Developments and trends in contemporary British philosophy.

**State Space form**

**Measurement Equation**

**Transition Equation**

**Future form**

If is a random variable on . The expected value of is defined as

**Inequalities**

*Jensen’s inequality*. If is convex and

*Holder’s inequality*. If with then

*Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality*: For

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